Communist Party of the Philippines
The Communist Party of the Philippines (in Filipino: Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas  or CPP) is a Marxist-Leninist-Maoist communist party in the Philippines. It was founded by former professor Jose Maria Sison. CPP is considered a foreign terrorist organization by the United States government and an illegal organization by the Philippine government.
It was formed in December 26,1968 in a remote barangay in Alaminos, Pangasinan, following a split from the old Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (1930), the first communist party in the Philippines. The party was founded by Jose Maria Sison, who confirmed its birth at Barangay Dulacac in the tri-boundary of Alaminos, Bani, and Mabini in Pangasinan. This is where the CPP "congress of reestablishment" was held on December 26, 1968, at a hut near the house of the Navarettes, the parents-in-law of Arthur Garcia, one of the CPP founders.
The CPP is ideologically Maoist and has been fighting a "protracted people's war" (PPW) through its armed wing, the New People's Army since 1969. It participates in the Maoist International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations. It heads the broad revolutionary front organization, the National Democratic Front.
The Communist Party of the Philippines (Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tse Tung Thought) is a revolutionary proletarian party that looks upon the legacies of past Philippine rebellions and revolutions and of the theories of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Joseph Stalin, and Mao Tse Tung. It assists the progress of theory and practice in the world proletarian revolution that is guided by Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tse Tung thought.
The CPP advocates armed struggle in the countryside in the form of PPW as the strategy toward national democracy, which is deemed as the stage prior to socialism. Its primary force in the proletariat class are the peasants and that PPW must be waged in the countryside in order to eventually encircle to cities toward victory. The CPP's basic principles are stated in Amado Guerrero's book Philippine Society and Revolution.
The once monolithic CCP split in 1992 over long-standing debates on tactics and strategies, and the analysis of Philippine society. Forces under the Manila-Rizal (dubbed as MR) regional party committee and its armed wing, the Alex Boncayao Brigade, led by the late Filemon Lagman were the first ones to split and were later followed by regional party committees in Western Visayas and Mindanao, and sectoral committees (the national peasant secretariat and the national united front committee). However, the splitting forces (dubbed as RJs, or "rejectionists") were eventually fragmented, resulting in a number of left blocs and parties, with the biggest bloc led by Lagman.
Most RJs basically opposed the CPPs analysis of a "semi-feudal and semi-colonial" Philippine society, as opposed to their assertion that the Philippines has been a "backward capitalist" country. They also rejected the PPW strategy, as opposed to the RJs strategy of urban insurrection and the expansion of the mass movement. The most prominent RJ critique of the CPP is the Counter-thesis written by Lagman.
Despite the split, the CPP nonetheless reaffirmed its basic tenets through Armando Liwanag's paper Reaffirm our Basic Principles and Rectify Errors.
On September 5, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed amnesty Proclamation 1377 for members of the Communist Party of the Philippines and its armed wing, the New People's Army; other communist rebel groups; and their umbrella organization, the National Democratic Front. The amnesty will cover the crime of rebellion and all other crimes "in pursuit of political beliefs," but not including crimes against chastity, rape, torture, kidnapping for ransom, use and trafficking of illegal drugs and other crimes for personal ends and violations of international law or convention and protocols "even if alleged to have been committed in pursuit of political beliefs." The National Committee on Social Integration (NCSI) will issue a Certificate of Amnesty to qualified applicants. Implementing rules and regulations are being drafted and the decree will be submitted to the Senate of the Philippines and the House of Representatives for their concurrence. The proclamation becomes effective only after Congress has concurred.
- Various Flag of the CPP (Accessed May 11, 2009)
- Communist Party of the Philippines Profile (Accessed May 11, 2009)
- Arroyo signs amnesty proclamation for Communists(Accessed May 11, 2009)
- Communists Party of the Philippines (Accessed May 11, 2009)
- Pabico, Alecks. The Great Left Divide. The Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. (Accessed on 1 March 2012)
- Gershman, John. Debates of the Philippine Left. Solidarity-US.org. (Accessed on 1 March 2012)